FIRST AID                                                                                                                                 



WHAT IS FIRST AID ?????

# Emergency care or treatment given to an ill or injured person before regular medical aid can be obtained.
# Initial help given to a casualty before the arrival of professionals.

AIMS OF FIRST AID

@ To preserve life
@ To promote recovery
@ To prevent others injuries

FIRST AID KIT

Following are the contents of a First Aid Kit:
* Cotton wool
* Adhesive tape
* Crepe bandage
* Sterile Dressing        
* Bandage
* Thermometer
* Scissors
* Glove
* Soap
* Pain reliever
* Antacid
* ORS Packets

FIRST AID PRIORITY

*  Safety
* Consciousness ( 4 Stages i.e  Fully Conscious , Drowsiness , Stupor , Coma )
* Pulse & Respiration
* Bleeding
* Fractures
* Poisoning
* Shock 
* Disposal of Casualty 

EXAMINATION TECHNIQUES

~ Hands- check nails and palm for anaemia
~ Pulse-check the rate, rhythm and volume
~ Blood pressure-Hypotension is low, Hypotension is high
~ Head-Eyes,ears,lips and mouth
~ Neck-check not broken or bruised
~ Chest-Lungs and heart
~ Abdomen- Liver,spleen,kidneys
~ Limps-look,feel,move

WOUNDS

@ Incised wound 
@ Laceration
@ Abrasion
@ Contusion
@ Puncture wound
@ Gunshot wound

1. INCISED WOUND
~ Straight Cut
~ Profuse bleeding
~ Caused by blade/broken glass

2. LACERATION
 ~ Rough tear by crushing on ripping forces
~ Bleed less profusely than incised wound
~ Often contaminated by germs

3. ABRASION
~ Caused by sliding fall or friction burn
~ Superficial wound

4. CONTUSION
~ Blunt blow
~ Caused by hammer etc

5. PUNCTURE WOUND
~ Caused by nail and needle
~ Small site of entry deep track of internal damage
~ Risk of infection is high

6. GUNSHOT WOUND
~ Caused by bullet
TREATMENTS

* Remove any clothing from around the wound
* Clean the skin round the wound and irrigate the wound to remove any dirt.
* Cover it with a clean dressing.

DRESSING
 When applying sterile dressing....
* Remove the wrapping
* Unfold the dressing pad , holding the bandage on each side of the pad .Put the pad directly on the wound .
* Wind the short end of the bandage once around the limb and the dressing to secure the pad, leaving the tail hanging free.
* To secure the bandage,tie the ends in a reef knot ,tied over the pad to exert firm pressure on the wound .
* Check the circulation to the extremity of the injured limb.

BLEEDING 

@ Arterial bleeding
@ Venous bleeding
@ Capillary bleeding

1. ARTERIAL BLEEDING
~ Bright red
~ Spurts out
~ Under high pressure
~ Richly oxygenated

2. VENOUS BLEEDING
~ Dark red
~ Gushing out
~ Under lesser pressure than arterial bleeding
~ Given up its oxygen

3. CAPILLARY BLEEDING
~ Red in colour
~ Oozing out
TREATMENT FOR BLEEDING
* Apply direct pressure to the wound in order to stop the flow of the blood.
* Apply sterile dressing with firm pressure too control the bleeding.
* If there is no fracture, try to raise the limb that has been wounded & support it.
SYMPTOMS
* Pale,clammy skin
* Rapid and weak pulse
* Rapid,shallow breathing
* Tenderness in abdomen
* Any pain of discomfort
* Nausea and/ or vomiting 
* Shock

FRACTURES
* A closed,or simple, fracture is where the broken bone ends remain beneath the skin,where as an open,or compound,fracture is where both ends of the bone protrude through the skin.

* Simple fracture
* Compound fracture
* Complicated fracture ( includes organ)
* Neck Fracture
* Skull fracture
* Fracture ribs
* Greenstick fracture ( happen to small children )

SIGN
~ Swelling
~ Deformity or projecting bone ends
~ Sever pain,made worse by movement
~ Bruised
~ Tenderness
  
TREATMENT
* Do not try to force the bones back together again but seek medical assistance.
* Treat all open wounds with a clean dressing
* Splint the fractured area in exactly the position that you find it in,pending removal to hospital or the arrival of expert medical aid.
* If the arm is fractured , splint it,and then set up a sling if the arm can be moved across the chest.
* Do not move the victim at all if you suspect a spinal injury.

BURN

* First degree
* Second degree
* Third degree
FIRST DEGREE
~Top layer of skin
~ Skin turns red and then peels off
Treatment: Rehydrating creams, cool water at regular intervals.

SECOND DEGREE
~ Deeper damage to the skin,causing blisters,shock.
Treatment: Use antibacterial dressing,or leave wound undressed but kept scrupulously clean.

THIRD DEGREE
~ Damage to all layers of skin
Treatment: Requires specialist treatment.

CPR ( CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION )

* Used when the patient has stopped breathing and when there is no pulse.
* Only be performed by someone who has had training in this method

THE ABC OF LIFE

* Airway- check the airways are open and clear , no obstructions
* Breathing- look and see that the chest is rising and falling,sound of breathing
* Circulation- check for pulse
STEPS OF CPR
~ Tilt victim's head backwards in order to open the airway.
~ Pinch the victim's nose with thumb an forefinger.
~ Take a deep breath ,place your mouth tightly over the victim's mouth and blow air from yours into their mouth
~ Stop blowing when the victim;s chest is expanded
~ Lift your hand from the victim and watch for the chest to fall.Give the victim further quick breaths,taking a deep breath yourself between each one.
~ Carry on blowing into the victim's lungs at a rate of 12 breaths per minute until the victim begins to breathe on his or her own.
~You  can stop blowing at this stage.

SHOCK

Rapid lowering of blood pressure owing to lack of circulating volume to vital body organs,such as the brain,heart,liver,and kidneys.

SIGNS
* Weak and giddy
* Nausea/may vomit
* Thirst
* Rapid shallow breathing
* Weak pulse
TREATMENT
~ Lay casualty down
~ Reassure the casualty
~ Raise and support the leg
~ Loosen tight clothing
~ Keep casualty warm
~ Check and record the casualty's breathing,pulse,level of response

ASTHMA ATTACK
TREATMENT
~ Reassure and calm casualty
~ Find a position that the person finds comfortable
~ Tell him/her to try taking slow,deep breaths
~ Help to find the reliever.
~ Allow casualty to use it and it will take effect within minutes
~ If attack eases within 5-10 minutes,encourage him/her to take another dose and breath slowly and deeply
~ Tell casualty to inform doctor if attack is very severe or first attack.

POISONING 

Poisoning is caused by exposure to a harmful substance.This can be due to swallowing,injecting,breathing in,or other means.Most poisonings occur by accident.

SIGNS
~ Difficulty breathing or swallowing
~ Drowsiness or confusion
~ Nausea and vomiting
~ Skin rash or burns around the mouth and lips
~ Chemical-smelling breath or clothing
  
TREATMENT
* Wipe away any residual chemical around the mouth and face
* Casualty's lips may be burned for discoloured so give frequent sips of cold water or milk.
*  Try to make the victim vomit.


                                        
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