Blood grouping is a method to tell what specific type of blood you have.What group you have depends on whether or not there are certain proteins,called antigens,on your red blood cells.
Blood is often grouped according to the ABO blood typing system.
Blood divided into 4 categories:



   Type A



   * Type B



   Type AB



   Type O



Your blood group depends on the types are been passed down to you from your parents.



HOW THE TEST IS PERFORMED



ABO TEST

Blood is drawn from a vein,usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand.The puncture site is cleaned with germ killing product ( spirit ).An elastic band is placed around the upper arm to apply pressure,which causes the vein to swell with blood.A needle is inserted into the vein and the blood is collected into the tube,During the procedure ,the elastic band is remove to restore circulation.Once the blood has been collected,theneedle is removed,and the band-aid is applied.

We also performing this test by puncturing the tip of finger and collecting the blood sample.

The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and B blood,and the sample is checked to see whether or not the blood cells stick together.If blood cells stick together,it means the blood reacted with one of the antibodies.
The second step is called back typing.The liquid part of your blood without cells(serum) is mixed with blood that is known to be type A and type B.Person with type A blood have anti-b antibodies,and those type B blood have anti-a antibodies . Neither the A nor B antigen,you have type o blood.Your plasma has antibodies that attack both  type A&B.Both the A and B antigens,you have type AB blood.Your plasma does not have antibodies against type A or B.

RH TEST

Rh blood type checks for the Rh antigen also called Rh factor on red blood cells.

* Have the Rh antigen,your blood is Rh-positive
* Do not have the Rh antigen,your blood is Rh-negative.
For example,if you have the A and Rh antigen ,your blood type is A-positive(A+).If your blood has the B antigen but not the Rh antigen,your blood type is B-negative(B-).

WHY THE TEST IS PERFORMED

This test is done to determine a person's blood type.Health care providers need to know your blood type when you get a blood transfusion or transplant,because not all blood types are compatible with each other for example;

# If you have type A blood,you can only receive types A and O blood.
# If you have type B blood,you can only receive types B and O blood
# If you have type AB blood,you can receive types A,B,AB,and O blood
# If you have type O blood ,you can only receive type O blood.

The type O blood can be given to anyone with any blood type. That is why people with type O blood are called universal blood donors.

The type AB blood can be accept from anyone with any blood type. That is why people with type AB blood are called universal blood acceptor .



 Blood grouping is especially important during pregnancy. If the mother is found to be Rh-,the father should also be tasted.If the father has Rh+ blood,the mother needs to receive a treatment to help prevent the development of substances that may harm the unborn baby.If you are Rh+,you can receive Rh+ blood.If you are Rh-,you can only receive Rh- blood.

NORMAL RESULTS

ABO Typing

If your blood cells stick together when mixed with;
* Anti-A serum ,you have type A blood
* Anti-B serum,you have type B blood
* Both anti-A and ant-B serums,you have type AB blood
* If your blood cells do not stick together when anti-a and ant-B are added,you have type O blood.

Rh Typing

* If your blood cells stick together when mixed with anti-Rh serum you have type Rh-positive blood.
* If your blood does not clot when mixed with anti-Rh serum,you have type Rh-negative blood.

RISKS

Risks associated with taking blood may include;
* Fainting or feeling light headed
* Multiple punctures to locate veins
* Excessive bleeding
* Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
* Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)